I translate this article, because it is an interesting question.I will accept any question.
Surprisingly how deep question this is. Plants certainly exist in the sea. But there are not as much as filling the sea, as this auther says. I think that do conquest just the sea before transiting to land. Plants itself seem have variously complex reason.
Why any plants do not vegetate the surface of the sea?
There is a water always, and are minerals, are there? Even it does not lack the sun light. It is strange that such plant does not exist.
But many seaweeds which voluminously grow in the temperate shallow exist a lot.
The plankton as small as we cannot see is luxuriating, and snowballing their own number by a division is more optimized than taking a long time to grow an individual.
By the way, I wonder why it is like that.
Because I guess that someone endlessly become big like a whale result in eating it. Just a bit survived one escape and can increase in other places if it takes a strategy of the division.
Or because it cannot go against the drift of the tide, I wonder that it cannot bear because changes of surrounding environment is severe.
But I wonder a jellyfish is alive...
I think based on the reason why the jellyfish has a poison, after all I wonder it have been gobbled.
The plants fill the land because of the gravity, and does not the surface of the sea because of the gravity, too.
But the surface of the lake is filled with them.
In shortly, it cannot ensure the variety. It is just a story that a Japanese cedar and pine does not come out from the surface of the water, does it?
Because there is a wave.
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A phytoplankton. / It seems lack phosphorus and nitrogen in the open sea.
A phytoplankton exists. If it becomes huge or organized, that is all it gets poorer efficiency of its life support, so there is no merit.
You might not see because vegetables which grow in the Pacific ocean result in flowing to the South China Sea. Just now, the Philippines and the China have a trouble about harvesting that vegetables.
I think that a place which is shined to the seabed is only a coastal area. / Oh, the surface of the sea? Cannot it absorb nourishment by a root?
Although I am not entirely sure, I suspect that you can see many enough planktons to fill the water, when you look through a microscope. / Almost all macrophytes will be dead by being poured a sea water. The sea water is too much sodium ion (and other minerals) to absorb the water.
What kind of plant does fill the desert?
It is not nutritious enough to fill. Well, it becomes a red tide, when it becomes eutrophication. It might seem filling.